Electrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces

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The research group „Electrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces” addresses challenges related to materials for energy storage devices with particular focus on the phenomena occurring at interfaces, in order to gain fundamental understanding that can be exploited to in practical systems.

Rechargeable Li-ion batteries have revolutionized the consumer electronic market and are currently powering the transition to electromobility. However, the limitations imposed by the current materials – in terms of performance, safety and sustainability – drive the need for new electrodes as well as electrolytes. The interface between these two basic battery components becomes also critical to profit from the great potential of novel battery chemistries, which are becoming more and more relevant not only for electric transportation but also for stationary energy storage. The group is extensively involved in the development of strategies to tailor the properties of battery interfaces (and interphases), from the synthesis of artificial electrode coatings to the implementation of solid and highly concentrated electrolytes. The goal is to understand how the interplay between chemical/electrochemical reactions, structural/compositional characteristics and conduction/ageing mechanisms affect the electrochemical performance of the battery.

Dr. Tugce AtesPostdocTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: tugce.ates(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Graziano Di DonatoPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: Graziano.di-donato(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Luigi FaggianoPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: luigi.faggiano(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Huifang FeiPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34113Mail: huifang.fei(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Jin HanPost-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34109Mail: jin.han(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Radhika Krishna HemaPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34122Mail: radhika-krishna.hema(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Mahdi Karimi JafariPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34122Mail: mahdi.karimi-jafari(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Huihua Li Post-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: huihua.li(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Jianneng LiangPost-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: jianneng.laing(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Mervyn SoansPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: mervyn.soans(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Alberto VarziPrincipal Investigator (PI)Tel: +49 (0731) 50 34107Mail: alberto.varzi(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Fuhua YangPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34107Mail: fuhua.yang(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Amogne Workie YibeltalPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34120Mail: amogne.yibeltal(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces

Solid State Batteries

As the interest for electric vehicles rapidly increases, new battery cell designs and chemistries need to be introduced to meet the demand of our society. The most stringent requirements for electric vehicles, thus batteries, are long driving ranges, fast charging, and safety. Solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) promise to increase energy density by enabling high-voltage positive electrodes (cathodes) and the lithium metal negative electrode (anode). In addition, SEs may guarantee higher safety in contrast to the established Lithium-ion technology, which makes use of highly flammable organic liquid electrolytes. Our efforts in this field are focused on the following topics (but not limited to):

  • Lithium Thiophosphates (glassy and crystalline) and Garnet-type Oxides
  • Cathode material buffer layers
  • Ionic liquid and polymeric interlayers for reversible Li metal anodes and anode-free designs
  • Electrode fabrication methods by wet casting
  • Bi-polar cells
  • Reference electrodes for solid-state cells


Aqueous batteries

Rechargeable aqueous batteries have recently raised considerable interest as potential alternatives for large-scale energy storage, mostly for reasons of increased safety, reduced cost, and low environmental impact. Unfortunately, the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V) has proven a bottleneck to enabling high energy density. Several strategies have been developed to enlarge the operating voltage of aqueous batteries, such as adopting corrosion resistance current collectors and active materials, as well as implementing highly concentrated water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSE). Our efforts in the field of aqueous batteries currently include:

  • Water-in-salt electrolytes with multiple charge carriers (Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+ and NH4+)
  • F-free salts based on carboxylate anions
  • Artificial SEI and surface protection layers
  • Ageing and corrosion mechanisms

 

Electrochemical Capacitors

Electrostatic charge storage offers high power performance and long life. In fact, Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) and alkali-ion capacitors can provide large current in a very short time and operate for several thousand cycles. These devices are currently used in an increasing number of applications and their diffusion is expected to exponentially grow in the years to come. With the widespread usage of such technologies, some concerns about the environmental impact of the employed materials as well as production process and end-of-life disposal have unavoidably risen. Our efforts in this field are focused on the following topics:

  • Biowaste-derived activated carbons
  • High voltage Ionic-liquid electrolytes
  • Fluorine-free natural binders
  • Aqueous electrode processing

In addition to its own equipment, the “Electrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces” research group also has access to a wide range of different analytical measurement methods and techniques at KIT and Ulm University.

Devices

  • Dry Room (25 sq.m.)
  • Glove boxes
  • Battery Cycler
  • Impedance Analyzer and Potentiostats
  • Electrochemical Dilatometer
  • Electrochemical Press (CompreDrive)
  • Multichannel Conductivity meter
  • BET and Pycnometer
  • Density Meter
  • TGA/MS
  • DSC
  • FTIR/Raman (also in-operando)
  • XRD (also in-situ)
  • Karl Fischer Titrator
  • Confocal Optical Microscope (also in-operando)
  • Climatic Chambers
  • Hot Press
  • Microwave Reactor
  • Muffle furnaces
  • Planetary Ball Mill
  • Supercritical fluids extractor
  • Tube furnaces
  • Ultrasonic Processor
  • UV Chamber

(information will be uploaded shortly)

ELIC – Entwicklung von Li-Festkörper Coin-Zellen hoher Energie und Lebensdauer

Compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, solid electrolyte batteries (SSB) increase both the energy parameters and the safety. The main technical obstacle to the market maturity of SSB is the phase boundary solid (electrodes)/solid (electrolyte). To improve this, i.e. to homogenise and reduce the resistance, a hybrid electrolyte system for anode and cathode is being developed based on the solid electrolyte (SE) and Ionic Liquids (IL). The IL part, due to its liquid gel-like aggregate state, takes over the complete connection of the FE to the electrodes.
The main economic obstacle is the cost of the Li film. In this project, the extremely expensive metallic Li anode foil is not used and the Li anode is formed in-situ during the formation process. A bipolar battery design with a thin bipolar foil to be developed in the combination +Al/Cu(Ni)- further increases the energy parameters. The proposed solutions are particularly suitable for traction batteries due to the high energy and safety of the battery.

REFA – Referenz-Elektroden für Festkörper-Akkumulatoren

All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are promising candidates as energy storage device for many different applications, especially if safety and robustness are of importance. However, the development of ASSBs is still at an early stage. A major hindrance is the poor understanding of the processes occurring at the electrode|electrolyte interfaces, which largely originates from the lack of appropriate cell setups for their investigation. For this purpose, the use of a suitable reference electrode (RE) is crucial, i.e., an RE which is characterized by a well-defined potential that does not shift with time. However, commercially available lab test cells do not offer the option to embed such an RE. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal RE chemistry for the different solid electrolytes. This non-ideal situation is addressed by the project partners by aiming for the following goals: (i) the development of a space-saving, experimental setup for contacting the test cell and adjusting the sample temperature and the stack pressure; (ii) the development of air tight test cells, enabling the use of an RE in a reproducible, user-friendly way, which can also be used for measurements without an RE; (iii) the optimization of the RE chemistry and geometry as well as the relative electrode configuration inside the test cell for the most important solid electrolyte classes (e.g. thiophosphates and polymers); and (iv) the elaboration of test procedures for obtaining artefact-free measuring results. The achievement of the goals (iii) and (iv) enables the user to work with a non-shifting, stable RE of the second kind with a well-defined, reproducible electrode potential instead of being forced to use a so-called pseudo-RE. The focus of this project lies on lithium-based ASSBs. Nonetheless, the possibility to transfer the results obtained and knowledge gained to other battery technologies will serve as additional guideline for the design of such cells.

SUPREME – Superkondensatorentwicklung in Richtung effektiver Materialien mit erhöhter Energiedichte

The aim of the project is to develop innovative supercapacitors or ultracapacitors (EDLCs) that enable high operating voltages of up to 3.4 V at simultaneously high temperatures (>60 °C). The focus here will be on the actual behavior of novel materials in industrial cell formats. Of particular interest is the gas evolution at temperatures above 50 °C and voltages above 3 V, as this could hardly be predicted in laboratory cells so far but plays a major role in industrial cell formats.
The project thus aims to increase the power and energy density of ultracapacitors by up to 42% while reducing costs in the application (through reduced cooling system requirements).

To achieve this goal, the promising materials identified in the ULTIMATE project (grant number 03ET6131) (including curved graphene with 60% increased energy density) should be digitally simulated using advanced methods, and electrochemically and physically analyzed to identify the mechanisms of gas evolution between electrode and electrolyte. Subsequently, based on the results, new material combinations – especially in the area of binder and electrolyte – should be tested on a laboratory scale and demonstrated in industrial cell formats.

As sub-project, HIU should develop novel binder combinations based on natural polymers and suitable cross-linkers to increase the areal electrode loading while ensuring mechanical and chemical stability at high voltages and high temperatures.

Industrial Collaboration

The group has an established collaboration network with both German and international companies, in particular with the automotive industry. In the past years multiple collaboration projects have been carried out in cooperation with Samsung, Hyundai, BMW and Daimler.

Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Ganesan Priya, Soans Mervyn, Cambaz Musa Ali, Zimmermanns Ramon, Gond Ritambhara, Fuchs Stefan, Hu Yang, Baumgart Sebastian, Sotoudeh Mohsen, Stepien Dominik, Stein Helge, Groß Axel, Bresser Dominic, Varzi Alberto, Fichtner Maximilian
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Köps Lukas, Ruschhaupt Peter, Guhrenz Chris, Schlee Philipp, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Balducci Andrea
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Qin Bingsheng, Zarrabeitia Maider, Hoefling Alexander, Jusys Zenonas, Liu Xu, Tübke Jens, Behm R. Jurgen, Cui Guanglei, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Karimi Niyousha, Zarrabeitia Maider, Geaney Hugh, Ryan Kevin M., Iliev Boyan, Schubert Thomas J. S., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto
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Pameté Emmanuel, Köps Lukas, Kreth Fabian Alexander, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Brousse Thierry, Balducci Andrea, Presser Volker
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Romero-Garcia I., Sotomayor M. E., Levenfeld B., Varez A., Varzi A., Kim G. T., Passerini S.
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Fei Huifang, Han Jin, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto
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Ates Tugce, Neumann Anton, Danner Timo, Latz Arnulf, Zarrabeitia Maider, Stepien Dominik, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Kim Yongil, Künzel Matthias, Steinle Dominik, Dong Xu, Kim Guk-Tae, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Karimi Niyousha, Zarrabeitia Maider, Hosseini Milad, Ates Tugce, Iliev Boyan, Schubert Thomas J. S., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li H., Zhang H., Zarrabeitia M., Liang H.-P., Geiger D., Kaiser U., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Di Donato Graziano, Ates Tugce, Adenusi Henry, Varzi Alberto, Navarra Maria Assunta, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Zarrabeitia Maider, Mariani Alessandro, Kuenzel Matthias, Mullaliu Angelo, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Zarrabeitia Maider, Jusys Zenonas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Hassan Hagar K., Farkas Attila, Varzi Alberto, Jacob Timo
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Mayer Alexander, Ates Tugce, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Bresser Dominic
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Li Huihua, Zhang Huang, Wu Fanglin, Zarrabeitia Maider, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Mullaliu Angelo, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Conti Paolo, Aquilanti Giuliana, Giorgetti Marco, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Kim Yongil, Varzi Alberto, Mariani Alessandro, Kim Guk-Tae, Kim Y., Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Diemant Thomas, Cao Kecheng, Liu Xu, Kaiser Ute, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Euchner Holger, Kuenzel Matthias, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Groß Axel, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li Huihua, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Jürgen Behm R., Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Diemant Thomas, Cao Kecheng, Kaiser Ute, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Scalia A., Zaccagnini P., Armandi M., Latini G., Versaci D., Lanzio V., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Lamberti A.
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Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Tsujimura Tomoyuki, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Mariani Alessandro, Innocenti Alessandro, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Asenbauer Jakob, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Bresser Dominic
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Zaccagnini Pietro, Giovanni Daniele di, Gomez Manuel Gomez, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto, Lamberti Andrea
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Han J., Mariani A., Zhang H., Zarrabeitia M., Gao X., Carvalho D. V., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Ruschhaupt Peter, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Thanner Katharina, Varzi Alberto, Buchholz Daniel, Sedlmaier Stefan J., Passerini Stefano
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Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Ito Seitaro, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Ruschhaupt Peter, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han J., Zarrabeitia M., Mariani A., Jusys Z., Hekmatfar M., Zhang H., Geiger D., Kaiser U., Behm R. J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Lodovico L., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Schütter C., Varzi A., Lodovico L., Ruschhaupt P., Balducci A.
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Li Huihua, Ma Yuan, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi Alberto, Thanner Katharina, Scipioni R., Di Lecce D., Hassoun J., Dörfler S., Altheus H., Kaskel S., Prehal C., Freunberger S. A.
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Qin B., Diemant T., Zhang H., Hoefling A., Behm R. J., Tübke J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Karimi Niyousha, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li Cuicui, Qin Bingsheng, Zhang Yunfeng, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Wang Jiaying, Dong Jiaming, Zeng Danli, Liu Zhihong, Cheng Hansong
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Sotomayor M. E., Torre-Gamarra C. D. L., Levenfeld B., Sanchez J.-Y., Varez A., Kim Guk-Tae, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ji Yuanchun, Ma Yuan, Liu Rongji, Ma Yanjiao, Cao Kecheng, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Song Yu-Fei, Passerini Stefano, Streb Carsten
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Lodovico Lucas, Milad Hosseini Seyed, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Scalia Alberto, Varzi Alberto, Moretti Arianna, Ruschhaupt Peter, Lamberti Andrea, Tresso Elena, Passerini Stefano
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Liu Xu, Zhang Huang, Geiger Dorin, Han Jin, Varzi Alberto, Kaiser Ute, Moretti Arianna, Passerini Stefano
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Qin B., Zhang H., Diemant T., Dou X., Geiger D., Behm R. J., Kaiser U., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Qin Bingsheng, Jeong Sangsik, Zhang Huang, Ulissi Ulderico, Vieira Carvalho Diogo, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Liu X., Elia G. A., Qin B., Zhang H., Ruschhaupt P., Fang S., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Kim Guk-Tae, Diemant Thomas, Behm Rolf Jürgen, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Zhang Huang, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ulissi Ulderico, Ito Seitaro, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Bresser Dominic, Ji Yuanchun, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Streb Carsten, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Keller Marlou, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Torre-Gamarra Carmen de la, Appetecchi Giovanni Battista, Ulissi Ulderico, Varzi Alberto, Varez Alejandro, Passerini Stefano
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Sharova Varvara, Moretti Arianna, Diemant Thomas, Varzi Alberto, Behm R. Jürgen, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi Alberto, Mattarozzi Luca, Cattarin Sandro, Guerriero Paolo, Passerini Stefano
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Bresser D., Buchholz D., Moretti A., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Scalia Alberto, Varzi Alberto, Lamberti Andrea, Tresso Elena, Jeong Sangsik, Jacob Timo, Passerini Stefano
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Poster
Diemant Thomas, Sharova Varvara, Moretti Arianna, Varzi Alberto, Behm R. Jürgen, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Zhang Huang, Kim Guk-Tae, Diemant Thomas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Stamm Johannes, Varzi Alberto, Latz Arnulf, Horstmann Birger
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Raccichini Rinaldo, Varzi Alberto, Wei Di, Passerini Stefano
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Sun H., Varzi A., Pellegrini V., Dinh D. A., Raccichini R., Del Rio-Castillo A. E., Prato M., Colombo M., Cingolani R., Scrosati B., Passerini S., Bonaccorso F.
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Lodovico Lucas, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Qin Bingsheng, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Geiger Dorin, Raccichini Rinaldo, Behm R. Jürgen, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi A., Raccichini R., Passerini S., Scrosati B.
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Ganesan Aswathi, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Shaijumon Manikoth M.
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Varzi A., Schütter C., Krummacher J., Raccichini R., Wolff C., Kim G.-T., Rösler S., Blumenröder B., Schubert T., Passerini S., Balducci A.
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Varzi A., Raccichini R., Marinaro M., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens M., Passerini S.
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Raccichini Rinaldo, Varzi Alberto, Chakravadhanula Venkata Sai Kiran, Kübel Christian, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Raccichini R., Varzi A., Passerini S., Scrosati B.
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Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Kübel C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Varzi A., Ramirez-Castro C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Poster
Varzi A., Bresser D., Zamory J. von, Mueller F., Passerini S.
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Poster
Kübel C., Kobler A., Balducci A., Fawey M. H., Scherer T., Rogat C., Munnangi A. R., Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Passerini S., Fichtner M., Hahn H.
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Poster
Varzi A., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Poster
Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Kübel C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Varzi A., Bresser D., Zamory J. von, Müller F., Passerini S.
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Members
Dr. Tugce AtesPostdocTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: tugce.ates(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Graziano Di DonatoPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: Graziano.di-donato(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Luigi FaggianoPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34104Mail: luigi.faggiano(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Huifang FeiPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34113Mail: huifang.fei(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Jin HanPost-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34109Mail: jin.han(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Radhika Krishna HemaPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34122Mail: radhika-krishna.hema(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Mahdi Karimi JafariPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34122Mail: mahdi.karimi-jafari(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Huihua Li Post-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: huihua.li(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Jianneng LiangPost-docTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: jianneng.laing(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Mervyn SoansPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34216Mail: mervyn.soans(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Dr. Alberto VarziPrincipal Investigator (PI)Tel: +49 (0731) 50 34107Mail: alberto.varzi(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Fuhua YangPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34107Mail: fuhua.yang(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Amogne Workie YibeltalPhD StudentTel: +49 (0731) 50 34120Mail: amogne.yibeltal(at)kit.edu
Research groupElectrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces
Research

Solid State Batteries

As the interest for electric vehicles rapidly increases, new battery cell designs and chemistries need to be introduced to meet the demand of our society. The most stringent requirements for electric vehicles, thus batteries, are long driving ranges, fast charging, and safety. Solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) promise to increase energy density by enabling high-voltage positive electrodes (cathodes) and the lithium metal negative electrode (anode). In addition, SEs may guarantee higher safety in contrast to the established Lithium-ion technology, which makes use of highly flammable organic liquid electrolytes. Our efforts in this field are focused on the following topics (but not limited to):

  • Lithium Thiophosphates (glassy and crystalline) and Garnet-type Oxides
  • Cathode material buffer layers
  • Ionic liquid and polymeric interlayers for reversible Li metal anodes and anode-free designs
  • Electrode fabrication methods by wet casting
  • Bi-polar cells
  • Reference electrodes for solid-state cells


Aqueous batteries

Rechargeable aqueous batteries have recently raised considerable interest as potential alternatives for large-scale energy storage, mostly for reasons of increased safety, reduced cost, and low environmental impact. Unfortunately, the narrow electrochemical stability window of water (1.23 V) has proven a bottleneck to enabling high energy density. Several strategies have been developed to enlarge the operating voltage of aqueous batteries, such as adopting corrosion resistance current collectors and active materials, as well as implementing highly concentrated water-in-salt electrolytes (WiSE). Our efforts in the field of aqueous batteries currently include:

  • Water-in-salt electrolytes with multiple charge carriers (Li+, Na+, K+, Zn2+ and NH4+)
  • F-free salts based on carboxylate anions
  • Artificial SEI and surface protection layers
  • Ageing and corrosion mechanisms

 

Electrochemical Capacitors

Electrostatic charge storage offers high power performance and long life. In fact, Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) and alkali-ion capacitors can provide large current in a very short time and operate for several thousand cycles. These devices are currently used in an increasing number of applications and their diffusion is expected to exponentially grow in the years to come. With the widespread usage of such technologies, some concerns about the environmental impact of the employed materials as well as production process and end-of-life disposal have unavoidably risen. Our efforts in this field are focused on the following topics:

  • Biowaste-derived activated carbons
  • High voltage Ionic-liquid electrolytes
  • Fluorine-free natural binders
  • Aqueous electrode processing

Equipment

In addition to its own equipment, the “Electrochemistry of Materials and Interfaces” research group also has access to a wide range of different analytical measurement methods and techniques at KIT and Ulm University.

Devices

  • Dry Room (25 sq.m.)
  • Glove boxes
  • Battery Cycler
  • Impedance Analyzer and Potentiostats
  • Electrochemical Dilatometer
  • Electrochemical Press (CompreDrive)
  • Multichannel Conductivity meter
  • BET and Pycnometer
  • Density Meter
  • TGA/MS
  • DSC
  • FTIR/Raman (also in-operando)
  • XRD (also in-situ)
  • Karl Fischer Titrator
  • Confocal Optical Microscope (also in-operando)
  • Climatic Chambers
  • Hot Press
  • Microwave Reactor
  • Muffle furnaces
  • Planetary Ball Mill
  • Supercritical fluids extractor
  • Tube furnaces
  • Ultrasonic Processor
  • UV Chamber
Collaboration

ELIC – Entwicklung von Li-Festkörper Coin-Zellen hoher Energie und Lebensdauer

Compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, solid electrolyte batteries (SSB) increase both the energy parameters and the safety. The main technical obstacle to the market maturity of SSB is the phase boundary solid (electrodes)/solid (electrolyte). To improve this, i.e. to homogenise and reduce the resistance, a hybrid electrolyte system for anode and cathode is being developed based on the solid electrolyte (SE) and Ionic Liquids (IL). The IL part, due to its liquid gel-like aggregate state, takes over the complete connection of the FE to the electrodes.
The main economic obstacle is the cost of the Li film. In this project, the extremely expensive metallic Li anode foil is not used and the Li anode is formed in-situ during the formation process. A bipolar battery design with a thin bipolar foil to be developed in the combination +Al/Cu(Ni)- further increases the energy parameters. The proposed solutions are particularly suitable for traction batteries due to the high energy and safety of the battery.

REFA – Referenz-Elektroden für Festkörper-Akkumulatoren

All-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) are promising candidates as energy storage device for many different applications, especially if safety and robustness are of importance. However, the development of ASSBs is still at an early stage. A major hindrance is the poor understanding of the processes occurring at the electrode|electrolyte interfaces, which largely originates from the lack of appropriate cell setups for their investigation. For this purpose, the use of a suitable reference electrode (RE) is crucial, i.e., an RE which is characterized by a well-defined potential that does not shift with time. However, commercially available lab test cells do not offer the option to embed such an RE. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal RE chemistry for the different solid electrolytes. This non-ideal situation is addressed by the project partners by aiming for the following goals: (i) the development of a space-saving, experimental setup for contacting the test cell and adjusting the sample temperature and the stack pressure; (ii) the development of air tight test cells, enabling the use of an RE in a reproducible, user-friendly way, which can also be used for measurements without an RE; (iii) the optimization of the RE chemistry and geometry as well as the relative electrode configuration inside the test cell for the most important solid electrolyte classes (e.g. thiophosphates and polymers); and (iv) the elaboration of test procedures for obtaining artefact-free measuring results. The achievement of the goals (iii) and (iv) enables the user to work with a non-shifting, stable RE of the second kind with a well-defined, reproducible electrode potential instead of being forced to use a so-called pseudo-RE. The focus of this project lies on lithium-based ASSBs. Nonetheless, the possibility to transfer the results obtained and knowledge gained to other battery technologies will serve as additional guideline for the design of such cells.

SUPREME – Superkondensatorentwicklung in Richtung effektiver Materialien mit erhöhter Energiedichte

The aim of the project is to develop innovative supercapacitors or ultracapacitors (EDLCs) that enable high operating voltages of up to 3.4 V at simultaneously high temperatures (>60 °C). The focus here will be on the actual behavior of novel materials in industrial cell formats. Of particular interest is the gas evolution at temperatures above 50 °C and voltages above 3 V, as this could hardly be predicted in laboratory cells so far but plays a major role in industrial cell formats.
The project thus aims to increase the power and energy density of ultracapacitors by up to 42% while reducing costs in the application (through reduced cooling system requirements).

To achieve this goal, the promising materials identified in the ULTIMATE project (grant number 03ET6131) (including curved graphene with 60% increased energy density) should be digitally simulated using advanced methods, and electrochemically and physically analyzed to identify the mechanisms of gas evolution between electrode and electrolyte. Subsequently, based on the results, new material combinations – especially in the area of binder and electrolyte – should be tested on a laboratory scale and demonstrated in industrial cell formats.

As sub-project, HIU should develop novel binder combinations based on natural polymers and suitable cross-linkers to increase the areal electrode loading while ensuring mechanical and chemical stability at high voltages and high temperatures.

Industrial Collaboration

The group has an established collaboration network with both German and international companies, in particular with the automotive industry. In the past years multiple collaboration projects have been carried out in cooperation with Samsung, Hyundai, BMW and Daimler.

Publications
Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Ganesan Priya, Soans Mervyn, Cambaz Musa Ali, Zimmermanns Ramon, Gond Ritambhara, Fuchs Stefan, Hu Yang, Baumgart Sebastian, Sotoudeh Mohsen, Stepien Dominik, Stein Helge, Groß Axel, Bresser Dominic, Varzi Alberto, Fichtner Maximilian
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Köps Lukas, Ruschhaupt Peter, Guhrenz Chris, Schlee Philipp, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Balducci Andrea
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Qin Bingsheng, Zarrabeitia Maider, Hoefling Alexander, Jusys Zenonas, Liu Xu, Tübke Jens, Behm R. Jurgen, Cui Guanglei, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Karimi Niyousha, Zarrabeitia Maider, Geaney Hugh, Ryan Kevin M., Iliev Boyan, Schubert Thomas J. S., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto
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Pameté Emmanuel, Köps Lukas, Kreth Fabian Alexander, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Brousse Thierry, Balducci Andrea, Presser Volker
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Romero-Garcia I., Sotomayor M. E., Levenfeld B., Varez A., Varzi A., Kim G. T., Passerini S.
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Fei Huifang, Han Jin, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto
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Ates Tugce, Neumann Anton, Danner Timo, Latz Arnulf, Zarrabeitia Maider, Stepien Dominik, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Kim Yongil, Künzel Matthias, Steinle Dominik, Dong Xu, Kim Guk-Tae, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Karimi Niyousha, Zarrabeitia Maider, Hosseini Milad, Ates Tugce, Iliev Boyan, Schubert Thomas J. S., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li H., Zhang H., Zarrabeitia M., Liang H.-P., Geiger D., Kaiser U., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Di Donato Graziano, Ates Tugce, Adenusi Henry, Varzi Alberto, Navarra Maria Assunta, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Zarrabeitia Maider, Mariani Alessandro, Kuenzel Matthias, Mullaliu Angelo, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Zarrabeitia Maider, Jusys Zenonas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Hassan Hagar K., Farkas Attila, Varzi Alberto, Jacob Timo
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Mayer Alexander, Ates Tugce, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Bresser Dominic
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Li Huihua, Zhang Huang, Wu Fanglin, Zarrabeitia Maider, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Mullaliu Angelo, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Conti Paolo, Aquilanti Giuliana, Giorgetti Marco, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Kim Yongil, Varzi Alberto, Mariani Alessandro, Kim Guk-Tae, Kim Y., Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Diemant Thomas, Cao Kecheng, Liu Xu, Kaiser Ute, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Euchner Holger, Kuenzel Matthias, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Groß Axel, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li Huihua, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Jürgen Behm R., Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Diemant Thomas, Cao Kecheng, Kaiser Ute, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Mariani Alessandro, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Scalia A., Zaccagnini P., Armandi M., Latini G., Versaci D., Lanzio V., Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Lamberti A.
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Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Tsujimura Tomoyuki, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Mariani Alessandro, Innocenti Alessandro, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Asenbauer Jakob, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Bresser Dominic
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Zaccagnini Pietro, Giovanni Daniele di, Gomez Manuel Gomez, Passerini Stefano, Varzi Alberto, Lamberti Andrea
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Han J., Mariani A., Zhang H., Zarrabeitia M., Gao X., Carvalho D. V., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Ruschhaupt Peter, Pohlmann Sebastian, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Thanner Katharina, Varzi Alberto, Buchholz Daniel, Sedlmaier Stefan J., Passerini Stefano
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Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Ito Seitaro, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Ruschhaupt Peter, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han J., Zarrabeitia M., Mariani A., Jusys Z., Hekmatfar M., Zhang H., Geiger D., Kaiser U., Behm R. J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Lodovico L., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Schütter C., Varzi A., Lodovico L., Ruschhaupt P., Balducci A.
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Li Huihua, Ma Yuan, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi Alberto, Thanner Katharina, Scipioni R., Di Lecce D., Hassoun J., Dörfler S., Altheus H., Kaskel S., Prehal C., Freunberger S. A.
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Qin B., Diemant T., Zhang H., Hoefling A., Behm R. J., Tübke J., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Karimi Niyousha, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Li Cuicui, Qin Bingsheng, Zhang Yunfeng, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Wang Jiaying, Dong Jiaming, Zeng Danli, Liu Zhihong, Cheng Hansong
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Sotomayor M. E., Torre-Gamarra C. D. L., Levenfeld B., Sanchez J.-Y., Varez A., Kim Guk-Tae, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ji Yuanchun, Ma Yuan, Liu Rongji, Ma Yanjiao, Cao Kecheng, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Song Yu-Fei, Passerini Stefano, Streb Carsten
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Lodovico Lucas, Milad Hosseini Seyed, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Scalia Alberto, Varzi Alberto, Moretti Arianna, Ruschhaupt Peter, Lamberti Andrea, Tresso Elena, Passerini Stefano
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Liu Xu, Zhang Huang, Geiger Dorin, Han Jin, Varzi Alberto, Kaiser Ute, Moretti Arianna, Passerini Stefano
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Qin B., Zhang H., Diemant T., Dou X., Geiger D., Behm R. J., Kaiser U., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Qin Bingsheng, Jeong Sangsik, Zhang Huang, Ulissi Ulderico, Vieira Carvalho Diogo, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Liu X., Elia G. A., Qin B., Zhang H., Ruschhaupt P., Fang S., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Kim Guk-Tae, Diemant Thomas, Behm Rolf Jürgen, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Han Jin, Zhang Huang, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Ulissi Ulderico, Ito Seitaro, Hosseini Seyed Milad, Varzi Alberto, Aihara Yuichi, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Bresser Dominic, Ji Yuanchun, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Streb Carsten, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Keller Marlou, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Torre-Gamarra Carmen de la, Appetecchi Giovanni Battista, Ulissi Ulderico, Varzi Alberto, Varez Alejandro, Passerini Stefano
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Sharova Varvara, Moretti Arianna, Diemant Thomas, Varzi Alberto, Behm R. Jürgen, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi Alberto, Mattarozzi Luca, Cattarin Sandro, Guerriero Paolo, Passerini Stefano
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Bresser D., Buchholz D., Moretti A., Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Scalia Alberto, Varzi Alberto, Lamberti Andrea, Tresso Elena, Jeong Sangsik, Jacob Timo, Passerini Stefano
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Poster
Diemant Thomas, Sharova Varvara, Moretti Arianna, Varzi Alberto, Behm R. Jürgen, Passerini Stefano
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Ma Yuan, Ma Yanjiao, Geiger Dorin, Kaiser Ute, Zhang Huang, Kim Guk-Tae, Diemant Thomas, Behm R. Jürgen, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Stamm Johannes, Varzi Alberto, Latz Arnulf, Horstmann Birger
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Raccichini Rinaldo, Varzi Alberto, Wei Di, Passerini Stefano
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Sun H., Varzi A., Pellegrini V., Dinh D. A., Raccichini R., Del Rio-Castillo A. E., Prato M., Colombo M., Cingolani R., Scrosati B., Passerini S., Bonaccorso F.
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Lodovico Lucas, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Qin Bingsheng, Zhang Huang, Diemant Thomas, Geiger Dorin, Raccichini Rinaldo, Behm R. Jürgen, Kaiser Ute, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi A., Raccichini R., Passerini S., Scrosati B.
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Ganesan Aswathi, Varzi Alberto, Passerini Stefano, Shaijumon Manikoth M.
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Varzi A., Schütter C., Krummacher J., Raccichini R., Wolff C., Kim G.-T., Rösler S., Blumenröder B., Schubert T., Passerini S., Balducci A.
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Varzi A., Raccichini R., Marinaro M., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens M., Passerini S.
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Raccichini Rinaldo, Varzi Alberto, Chakravadhanula Venkata Sai Kiran, Kübel Christian, Passerini Stefano
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Varzi A., Passerini S.
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Raccichini R., Varzi A., Passerini S., Scrosati B.
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Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Kübel C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Varzi A., Ramirez-Castro C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Poster
Varzi A., Bresser D., Zamory J. von, Mueller F., Passerini S.
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Poster
Kübel C., Kobler A., Balducci A., Fawey M. H., Scherer T., Rogat C., Munnangi A. R., Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Passerini S., Fichtner M., Hahn H.
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Poster
Varzi A., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Poster
Raccichini R., Varzi A., Chakravadhanula V. S. K., Kübel C., Balducci A., Passerini S.
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Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Varzi A., Bresser D., Zamory J. von, Müller F., Passerini S.
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Group Facts